Preparation of manuscript
Special Report. Uniform requirements for
manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. N Eng J Med 1991: 324: 424-8.
Type the manuscript on white bond paper, 216 x 279
mm (8.5 x 11 inches) or ISO A4 (212 x 297 mm), with margins of at least 25
mm (1 inch). Type only on one side of the paper. Use double spacing throughout
including title page, abstracts, text, acknowledgments, references, tables,
and legends for illustrations. Begin each of the following sections on separate
pages: title page, abstract and key words, text, acknowledgments, references,
individual tables, and legends. Number pages consecutively beginning with
the title page. Type the page number in the upper of lower right-hand corner
of each page.
The title page should carry (a) the title of
the article, which should be concise but informative; (b) first name, middle
initial, and last name of each author, with highest academic degree (s) and
institutional affiliation; (c) name of department (s) to which the work should
be attributed; (d) disclaimers, if any; (e) name and address of author responsible
for correspondence about the manuscripts (f) name and address of author to whom
request for reprints should be address or statement that reprints will not be
available from the author; (g) source (s) of support in the form of grants,
equipment, drugs, or all of these; and (h) a short running head or foot line
of no more than 40 characters (count letters and spaces) placed at the foot
of the title page and identified.
All persons designated as authors should
qualify for authorship. The order of authorship should be a joint decision of
the co-authors. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work
to take public responsibility for the content.
Authorship credit should be based only
on substantial contributions (a) to conception and design, or analysis and interpretation
of data; (b) to drafting the article of revising it critically for important
intellectual content; (c) on final approval of the version to be published.
Conditions (a), (b), and (c) must all be met. Participation solely in the acquisition
of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision
of the research group is also not sufficient for authorship. Any part of an
article to its main conclusion must be the responsibility of at least one author.
A paper with corporate (collective) authorship
must specify the key persons responsible for the article; others contributing
to the work should be recognized separately (see Acknowledgments).
Editors may require authors to justify
the assignment of authorship.
and key words
The second page should carry an abstract
of no more than 150 words for unstructured abstracts or 250 words for structured
abstracts. The abstract should state the purpose(s) of the study or investigation,
basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals; observational
and analytical methods), main findings (give specific data and their statistical
significance, if possible), and the principal conclusions. Emphasize new and
important aspects of the study or observation.
Below the abstract provide, and identify
as such, 3-10 key words or short phrases that will assist indexers in cross
indexing the article and may be published with the abstract. Use terms from
the medical subject heading (MeSH) list of Index Medicus; if suitable MeSH terms
are not yet available for recently introduced terms, present terms may be used.
The text of observational and experimental articles
is usually but not necessarily divided into sections with the headings: Introduction,
Methods, Results, and Discussion. Long articles may need subheadings within
some sections to clarify their content, especially the Methods, Results and
State the purpose of the article. Summarize the rationale
for the study or observation. Give only strictly pertinent references and
do not review the subject extensively. Do not include data or conclusions
from the work being reported.
Describe your selection of the observational
or experimental subjects (patients or laboratory animals, including controls)
clearly. Identify the methods, apparatus (manufacturer, name and address in
parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other references
to established methods including statistical methods. Provide references and
brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are well known;
describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them,
and evaluate chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s)
Describe statistical methods with enough
detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to
verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present
appropriate indicators of measurement
error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid sole reliance on
statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of p values, which fails to
convey important quantitative information. Discuss eligibility of experimental
subjects. Give details about randomization, Describe the methods for and success
of any blinding of observations. Report treatment complications. Give number
of observations. Report losses to observation (such as dropouts from a clinical
trial). References for study design and statistical methods should be according
to standard works (with pages stated) when possible rather than to papers
in which the designs or methods were originally reported. Specify any general-use
computer programmes used.
Put general description of methods in
the Methods section. When data are summarized in the Results section specify
the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures
to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support.
Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate
data in graphs and tables. Avoid non-technical use of technical terms in statistics,
such as "random" (which implies a randomizing device), "normal", "significant",
"correlations", and "sample". Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and
present your results, in logical sequence
in the test tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all the data
in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations.
Emphasize new and important aspects
of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail
data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section. Include
in the Discussion section the implications of the findings and their limitations
including implications for future research. Relate the observations to other
relevant studies. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study and avoid
unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by your data.
Avoid claiming priority to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses
when warranted but clearly label them as such. Recommendations, when appropriate,
may be included.
At an appropriate place in the article
(title-page footnote or appendix to the test, one or more statements should
specify (a) contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship,
such as general support by a departmental chairman; (b) acknowledgments of
technical help; (e) acknowledgments of financial and material support, specifying
the nature of the support; (d) financial relationships that may pose a conflict
Persons who have contributed intellectually
to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be named
and their function or contribution described e.g., "scientific advisor", "critical
review of study proposal", "data collection" or "participation in clinical
trial". Such persons must have given their permission to be named. Authors
are responsible for obtaining written permission from persons acknowledged
by name, because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions.
Technical help should be acknowledged in a paragraph separate from those acknowledging
Number references consecutively in order
in which they are first mentioned in the test. Identify references in text,
tables, and legends by arabic numericals in parentheses. References cited
only in tables or in legends to figures should be numbered in accordance with
a sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular
table or illustration.
Use the style of the examples below
which are based with slight modifications on the formats used by the US National
Library of Medicine used in Index Medicus Consult list of Journals indexed
in Index Medicus, Published annually as separate publication by the library
and as a list in the January issue of Index Medicus.
Try to avoid using abstracts as references.
"Unpublished observations" and "Personal Communications" may not be used as
references, although references to written, not oral, communications may be
inserted (in parentheses) in the text. Include among the references, papers
accepted but not yet published; designate the journal and add "In press".
Information from manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted should be cited
in the text as "unpublished observations" (in parentheses). The references
must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents.
Examples of correct forms of references
are given below:
- Standard journal article (List all authors,
but if the number exceeds six give names of three authors followed by et
You CH, Lee KY, Chey RY, Menguy R. Electrogastrographic study of patients
with unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting. Gastroenterlogy 1980; 79(2):
As an option, if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume,
the month and issue number may be omitted.
You CH, Lee KY, Choy RY, Menguy R. Electrogastrographic study of patients
with unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting. Gastroenterlogy 1980; 79:
Goate AM Haynes AR, Owen MJ, et al.
Predisposing locus for Alzheimer's disease on chromosome 21. Lancet 1989;
- Organization as author
The Royal Marsden Hospital Bone-Marrow Transplantation Team. Failure of
syngeneic bonemarrow graft without preconditioning in post-hepatitis marrow
aplasia. Lancet 1977; 2: 742-4.
- No author given
Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas (editorial). Br Med J 1981;
- Article in a foreign language
Massne L, Borghi S, Pestafino A, piccini R, Gambini C. Locations palmaires
purpuriques de la dermatite herpetiforme. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1987;
- Volume with supplement
Magni F, Rossoni G, Berti F. BN-52021 protects guineapig from heart anaphylaxis.
Pharmacol Res Commun 1988; 20 (Suppl) 5: 758.
- Issue with supplement
Gardos G, Cole JO, Haskell D, Marby D, Paine SS, Moore PL. The natural history
of tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1988; 8(4 17. Suppl): 31 S-37S.
- Volume with part
Hanly C. Metaphysics and innateness; a psychoanalytic perspective. Int J
Psychoanal 1988; 69 (Pt 3): 389-99.
- Issue with part
Edwards L, Meyskens F, levine N. Effect of oral isotretinoin on dysplastic
nevi. J Am Acad dermatol 1989; 20(2 Pt 1): 257-60.
- Issue with no volume
Baumeister AA. Origins and control of stereotyped movements. Monogr Am Assoc
Ment Defic 1978; (3): 353-84.
- No issue or volume
Danoek K. Skiing in and through the history of medicine. Nord Medicinhist
Arab 1982: 86-100. 21.
- Pagination in Roman numerals
Ansvarsfall RY. Blood transfusion in ill patient. Vardfacket 1989; 13: XXVI-XXVII.
- Type of article indicated as needed
Spargo PM, Muners JM. DDAVP and open heart surgery (letter). Anesthesia
Fuhrman SA, Joiner KA. Binding of the third component of complement C3 by
Toxoplasma gondii (abstract). Clin Res 1987; 35: 475A.
- Article containing retraction
Shishido A. Retraction notice: Effect of platinum compounds on murine lymphocyte
mitogenesis (retraction of Alsabti EA, Ghalib ON, Saleem MH. In: Jpn J Med
Sci Biol 1979; 32: 53-65). Jpn J Med Set Biol 1980; 33: 235-7.
- Article retracted
Alsabti EA, Ghalib ON, Salem HM. Effect of platinum compounds on murine
lymphocyte mitogenesis (Retracted by Shishido A. In: Jpn J Med Sci Biol
1980; 33: 235-7]. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1979; 32: 53-65.
- Article containing comment
Piccoli A, Bossati A. Early steroid therapy in IgA nephropathy; still an
open question (comment). Nephron 1989; 51: 289-91. Comment on: Nephron 1988;
- Article commented on
Kobayashi Y, Fujii K, Hiki Y, Tateno S, Kurokawa A, Kamiyaina M. Steroid
therapy in IgA nephropathy: a retrospective study in heavy proteinuric cases
(see comments). Nephron 1988; 49: 12-7. Comment in: Nephron 1989; 51: 289-91.
- Article with published erratum
Schofield A. The CAGE questionnaire and psychological health (published
erratum appears in Br J Addict 1989; 84: 701). Br J Addict 1988; 83: 761-4.
Books and other monographs
- Personal author(s)
Colson JH, amour WJ. Sports injuries and their treatment. 2nd ed. London:
S. Paul, 1986.
- Editor(s), compiler as author Diener HC,
Wilkinson M, editors. Drug-induced Headache. New York: SpringerVerlag, 1988.
- Organization as author and publisher
Virginia Law Foundation. The medical and legal implications of AIDS. Charlottesville:
The Foundation, 1987.
- Chapters in a book
Weinstein L, Swartz MN. Pathologic properties of invading microorganisms.
In: Sodeman WA Jr, Sodeman WA, editors. Pathologic physiology: mechanisms
of disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1974: 457-72.
- Conference proceedings
Vivian VL, editor. Child abuse and neglect: a medical community response.
Proceedings of the First AMA National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect;
1984 Mar 30-31; Chicago: American Medical Association, 1985.
- Conference paper: Harley NH. Comparing
radon daughter dosimetric and risk models. In: Gammage RB, Kaye SV, editors.
Indoor air and human health. Proceedings of the Seventh Life Sciences Symposium:
1984 Oct 29-31; Knoxville (TN). Chelsea (MI); Lewis, 1985: 69-78.
- Scientific and technical report: Akustsu
T. Total heart replacement device. Bethesda (ML); National Institutes of
Health, National Heart and Lung Institute; 1974 Apr. Report No; NH-NHLI
Yousef NM. School Adjustment of Children with congenital heart disease (dissertation).
Pittsburgh (PA): Univ of Pittsburgh 1988.
Harred JF. Knight AR. McIntyre JS, inventors Dow chemical Company, assignee.
Epoxidation process. US patent 3654, 317, 1972 Apr 4.
Other published material
- Newspaper article
Rensberger B, Specter B. CFCs may be destroyed by natural process. The Washington
Post 1989 Aug 7; Sect. A: 2 (col 5).
AIDS epidemic: the physician's role (video recording). Cleveland (OH): Academy
of Medicine of Cleveland, 1987.
- Computer file
Renal system (computer programme). MS-DOS version. Edwardsville (KS); Medi-Sim,
- Legal material
Toxic Substance Control Act; Hearing on S. 776 Before the subcommittee.
On the Environment of the Senate Common. On Commerce. 94'" Cong., Ist Sess.
Scotland [topographic map]. Washington: National Geographic Society (US).
- Book of the Bible
Ruth 3: 1-18. The Holy Bible. Authorized King James version. New York; Oxford
Univ. press, 1972.
- Dictionary and similar references
Ectasia. Dorland's illustrated medical dictorary. 27th ed. Philadelphia:
Saunders, 1988, 527.
- Classical material
The Winter's Tale: act 5, scene 1, lines 13-16. The complete works of William
Shakespeare. London: Rex, 1973.
- In press
Lillywhite HB, Donald JA. Pulmonary blood, flow regulation in an aquatic
snake. Science. In Press.
Type each table double-spaced on a separate
sheet. Do not submit table as photographs. Number tables consecutively in the
order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief legend for each.
Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Place explanatory matter in
footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all nonstandard abbreviations
that are used in each table.
Identify statistical measures of variations
such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean.
Do not use internal horizontal and vertical
Be sure that each table is cited in the
If you use data from another published
or unpublished source obtain permission and acknowledge fully.
The use of too many tables in rotation
to the length of the text may produce difficulties in the layout of pages. Examine
issues of the journal to estimate how many tables can be used per 1000 words
Submit the required number of complete
sets of figures. Figures should be professionally drawn and photographed free
hand or typewritten lettering is unacceptable. Instead of original drawings,
roentgenograms, and other material send sharp, glossy black-and-white photographic
prints, usually 127x173 mm (5x7 inch) but no larger than 203x254 mm (9x10 inch).
Letters, numbers, and symbols should be clear and even throughout; and of sufficient
size that when reduced for publication each item would still be legible. Titles
and detailed explanations should be given in the legends for illustrations,
not on the illustrations themselves.
Each figure should have a label pasted
at its back indicating the number of the figure, author's name, and top of the
figure. Do not write on the back of figures or scratch or mark them by using
paper clips. Do not bend figures or mount them on cardboard.
Photomicrographs must have internal scale
markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in the
photomicrographs should contrast with the background.
If photographs of persons are used, either
the subjects must not be identifiable or their pictures must be accompanied
by written permission to use the photographs.
Figure should be numbered consecutively
according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. If a
figure has been published, acknowledge the original source and submit written
permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. Permission is
required irrespective of authorship or publisher, except for documents in the
For illustrations in colour, send the
colour negatives, positive transparencies, or colour prints. Accompanying drawings
marked to indicate the region to be reproduced may be useful to the editor.
Illustrations in colour will be published only if the author pays for the extra
for illustrations / tables
Type legends for illustrations/tables
double-spaced, starting on separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding
to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers,
or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain
each one clearly in the legend. Explain the internal scale and identify method
of staining in photomicrographs.
Measurement of length, height, weight
and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or
their decimal multiples.
Temperatures should be given in degrees
Celsius. Blood pressures should be given in millimeters of mercury.
All haematologic and clinical-chemistry
measurements should be reported in the Metric system in terms of the International
System of Units (SI). Editors may request conventional or non-SI Units to be
added by the authors before publications.
Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviation in the title and abstract.
The full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use
in the text unless it is a standard unit measurement.
Special Report. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical
journals. N Eng J Med 1991: 324: 424-8.
Pakistan Journal of Pathology (PJP)