Objectives: Overactive bladder (OAB) is chronic condition that significantly affects quality of life in patients. The goal of treatment of OAB is to improve the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and enhance the quality of life (QOL). This study aims to investigate whether tolterodine combined with estazolam is more effective than tolterodine alone in the treatment of women with overactive bladder (OAB) and nocturia, advancing the management of OAB via a prospective review of 407 female cases with OAB symptoms. Methodology: After we excluded other causes for storage symptoms, 407 consecutive female patients with OAB and nocturia were prospectively studied, of which 197 cases were given tolterodine alone while the other 210 cases were given tolterodine combined with estazolam for the treatment of OAB. Data on urgency, incontinence, micturition frequency, nocturia episodes and voided volume were collected before and after 4 weeks’ pharmacological treatment using a 3-day micturition diary. Results: The two groups of OAB patients were given tolterodine alone, tolterodine combined with estazolam for 4 weeks respectively. At weeks 4, the number of urgency episodes per 24 hours in the intervention group decreased by 3.5 (-46.7%), incontinence episodes by 2 (-66.67%), day-time frequency by 2.8 (23.3%), nocturia episodes by 1.8 (47.4%) and the volume voided per micturition increased by 50ml (31.2%), while in the control group the number of urgency episodes per 24 hours decreased by 2 (-28.6%), urgency incontinence episodes by 1.2 (-42.9%), day-time frequency by 2 (16.1%), nocturia episodes by 0.6 (17.1%) and the volume voided per micturition increased by 40.8ml (25.8%). The differences of changes of LUTS between the 2 groups has statistical significance (P<0.05). ÿWe used a 5% significance level and found the range of p-value with the table of critical t-values, then if the P<0.05, we considered the differences of LUTS between the two groups were significant. Conclusion: A combination of toterodine and estazolam is a potential therapy for female patients with OAB and nocturia, improving significantly the OAB symptoms.
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