Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular (i.e. retinal, renal, possibly neuropathic) and macrovascular (i.e. coronary, peripheral vascular). Diabetic retinopathy is the most dreadful complication of all and is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Diabetic Nephropathy is heralded by the presence of microalbuminuria. Its relation with retinopathy in type I diabetics is well established, however, in type 2 diabetes it’s still not clear. This study was designed to determine the frequency of retinopathy in patients with and without microalbuminuria. Objectives: To determine the frequency of micoalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus and frequency of diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetics, with and without microalbuminuria Setting: Diabetes Management Centre, Services Hospital, Lahore Study Design: Cross-sectional survey Study Duration: 6 months from 3rd Jan 09 to 2nd July 09 Methods: 300 type 2 diabetics were selected from Diabetes Management Centre. Their spot urine microalbuminuria was done and the patients were divided into two groups depending upon the presence or absence of microalbuminuria. Patients with macroalbuminuria and hypertension had already been excluded from the study. Retinoscopy of all patients was done and the frequency of microalbuminuria and retinopathy was determined. Results: The age range was 35-70 years. 43% were male and 57% were female. Out of 300 diabetics 86 were found to have microalbuminuria i.e., 28.7%. Frequency of retinopathy was higher in patients with microalbuminuria (45.4%) whereas in patients without microalbuminuria it was 24.3%. Conclusion: Frequency of retinopathy increases with the presence of microalbuminuria. In this study the statistical significant correlation was not determined. If this correlation is established in further studies then microalbuminuria can be used as a predictor of diabetic retinopathy.
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