Bird FLu-WHEN People Should Stop Eating chicken and Eggs?
BIRD FLU SCARE -_To EAT OR NOT TO EAT POULTRY PRODUCTS_-SHOULD PEOPLE STOP EATING CHICKEN?
Should we stop eating chicken- with mutton so costly and threat of heart diseases adherent to its consumption,.For a health conscious individual the breaking news that bird flu or avian influenza HNN1 virus positive in neighbourhood country like western parts of India, has caused a great concern allover the chicken eating community especially our own community which largely depends on outside state sources for their poultry products.There are many questions to an inquisitive mind.
What is avian influenza(BIRD FLU)& How does avian influenza spread among birds? Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals caused by viruses that normally infect only birds and, less commonly, pigs but can infect human beings.Wild birds worldwide carry the viruses in their intestines, but usually do not get sick from them. Infected birds shed influenza virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. Susceptible birds become infected when they have contact with contaminated excretions or with surfaces that are contaminated with excretions or secretions. Domesticated birds may become infected with avian influenza virus through direct contact with infected waterfowl or other infected poultry or through contact with surfaces (such as dirt or cages) or materials (such as water or feed) that have been contaminated with the virus. However, avian influenza is very contagious among birds and can make some domesticated birds, including chickens, ducks, and turkeys, very sick and kill them. The role of migratory birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza is not fully understood. Wild waterfowl are considered the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. They have probably carried influenza viruses, with no apparent harm, for centuries.Recent events make it likely that some migratory birds are now directly spreading the bird flu H5N1 virus in its highly infectious form. Further spread to new areas is expected.
Avian influenza viruses are highly species-specific, but have, on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier to infect humans.
How do people become infected with avian influenza viruses?
Direct contact with infected poultry, or surfaces and objects contaminated by their faeces, is presently considered the main route of human infection. Most cases of avian influenza infection in humans have resulted from direct or close contact with infected poultry (e.g., domesticated chicken, ducks, and turkeys) or surfaces contaminated with secretions and excretions from infected birds. To date, most human cases have occurred in rural or periurban areas where many households keep small poultry flocks, which often roam freely, sometimes entering homes or sharing outdoor areas where children play. As infected birds shed large quantities of virus in their faeces, opportunities for exposure to infected droppings or to environments contaminated by the virus are abundant under such conditions. Moreover, because many households in Asia depend on poultry for income and food, many families sell or slaughter and consume birds when signs of illness appear in a flock, and this practice has proved difficult to change. Exposure is considered most likely during slaughter, defeathering, butchering, and preparation of poultry for cooking.
Why is so much hue and cry about the current outbreaks in poultry?The current outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza, which began in South-East Asia in mid-2003, are the largest and most severe on record. Never before in the history of this disease have so many countries been simultaneously affected, resulting in the loss of so many birds.Despite the death or destruction of an estimated 150 million birds, many countries like Indonesia and Viet Nam and in some parts of Cambodia, China, Thailand, France,Egypt. Republic of Korea, Viet Nam, Japan, Thailand, Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Malyasiaand Indiahave been affected by this outbreaks. The bird flu (H5N1) virus is also of particular concern for human health.
What are the symptoms of avian influenza in humans?
Symptoms of avian influenza in humans have ranged from typical human influenza-like symptoms (fever, cough, sore throat, and muscle aches) to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases (such as acute respiratory distress syndrome), and other severe and life-threatening complications. The symptoms of avian influenza may depend on which specific virus subtype and strain caused the infection.
How is avian influenza detected in humans?
A laboratory test is needed to confirm avian influenza in humans,avaiable at only specialized centers..
What are the implications of avian influenza to human health?
The widespread persistence of Birdflu virus in poultry populations poses two main risks for human health.The first is the risk of direct infection when the virus passes from poultry to humans, resulting in very severe disease has caused the largest number of cases of severe disease and death in humans. Unlike normal seasonal influenza, where infection causes only mild respiratory symptoms in most people, the disease caused by bird flu virus follows an unusually aggressive clinical course, with rapid deterioration and high fatality. Primary viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure are common. In the present outbreak, more than half of those infected with the virus have died. Most cases have occurred in previously healthy children and young adults.A second risk, of even greater concern, is that the virus – if given enough opportunities – will change into a form that is highly infectious for humans and spreads easily from person to person. Such a change could mark the start of a global outbreak (a pandemic).
How is avian influenza in humans treated?
The prescription medicines approved for human influenza viruses should work in treating avian influenza infection in humans. Two drugs oseltamivir (commercially known as Tamiflu) and zanamivir (commercially known as Relenza) can reduce the severity and duration of illness caused by seasonal influenza. For cases of human infection with bird flu( H5N1), the drugs may improve prospects of survival, if administered early.So far, most fatal pneumonia seen in cases of birf flu( H5N1) infection has resulted from the effects of the virus, and cannot be treated with antibiotics. Nonetheless, since influenza is often complicated by secondary bacterial infection of the lungs, However, influenza viruses can become resistant to these drugs, so these medications may not always work.
Does the current seasonal influenza vaccine protect me from avian influenza?
No. Influenza vaccine for the 2005-06 season does not provide protection against avian influenza.and till now there is no human vaccine available for this disease.
Should I wear a surgical mask to prevent exposure to avian influenza?
Currently, wearing a mask is not recommended for routine use (e.g., in public) for preventing influenza exposure. disposable surgical and procedure masks have been widely used in health-care settings to prevent exposure to respiratory infections, but the masks have not been used commonly in community settings, such as schools, businesses, and public gatherings.
We have a small flock of chickens. Is it safe to keep them?
Yes. In the United States there is no need at present to remove a flock of chickens because of concerns regarding avian influenza. The U.S. Department of Agriculture monitors potential infection of poultry and poultry products by avian influenza viruses and other infectious disease agents.
Does the virus spread easily from birds to humans?
No. Though more than 100 human cases have occurred in the current outbreak, this is a small number compared with the huge number of birds affected and the numerous associated opportunities for human exposure, especially in areas where backyard flocks are common. It is not presently understood why some people, and not others, become infected following similar exposures.
What is the significance of limited human-to-human transmission?
The spread of avian influenza viruses from an ill person to another person has been reported very rarely, and transmission has not been observed to continue beyond one person. During an outbreak of avian influenza among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have direct or close contact with infected birds or with surfaces that have been contaminated with secretions and excretions from infected birds.In no instance has the virus spread beyond a first generation of close contacts or caused illness in the general community. these incidents suggest that transmission requires very close contact with an ill person. among close family members. It is often impossible to determine if human-to-human transmission has occurred since the family members are exposed to the same animal and environmental sources as well as to one another.
Are there any other causes for concern?
Yes. Several.• Domestic ducks can now excrete large quantities of highly pathogenic virus without showing signs of illness, and are now acting as a “silent” reservoir of the virus, perpetuating transmission to other birds. This adds yet another layer of complexity to control efforts and removes the warning signal for humans to avoid risky behaviours.The behaviour of the virus in its natural reservoir, wild waterfowl, may be changing.
Should people stop Eating poultry products?What preventive mesaures to be taken?.
Chicken and other poultry are safe to eat if cooked properly, according to a joint statement by FAO and the World Health Organization (WHO) issued to national food safety authorities. However, no birds from flocks with disease should enter the food chain.In areas where there is no bird flu outbreak in poultry, there is no risk that consumers will be exposed to the virus via the handling or consumption of poultry and poultry products.
Cooking of poultry (e.g. chicken, ducks, geese, turkeys and guinea-fowl) at or above 70° Celsius throughout the product, so that absolutely no meat remains raw and red, is a safe measure to kill the bird flu(H5N1) virus in areas with outbreaks in poultry, FAO/WHO said. This ensures that there is no active virus remaining if the live bird had been infected and had mistakenly entered the food chain. To date, there is no epidemiological evidence that people have become infected after eating contaminated poultry meat that has been properly cooked.
Instructions for Poultry handlers;A large number of confirmed human cases acquired their infection during the home slaughtering and subsequent handling of diseased or dead birds prior to cooking. FAO and WHO emphasize that in the process of killing and preparing a live bird for food, slaughtering poses the greatest risk of passing the virus from infected or diseased birds to humans. Most strains of avian influenza virus are mainly found in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of infected birds, and not in meat. However, highly infectious viruses, such as the birdflu(H5N1) strain, spread to virtually all parts of an infected bird, including meat. Proper cooking at temperature at or above 70°C in all parts of the product will inactivate the virus.When a diseased bird is slaughtered, defeathered and eviscerated, virus from that bird can transfer to humans through direct contact. Infected poultry excrete virus in their secretions and faeces. Exposure might also occur when the virus is inhaled through dust and possibly through contact with surfaces contaminated with the virus. In areas where marketing of live birds is common, the practices of home slaughtering, defeathering, and eviscerating increase the exposure to potentially contaminated parts of a chicken. These practices therefore result in a significant risk of infection in areas with outbreaks in poultry.It is not always possible to differentiate infected and non-infected birds in outbreak areas. Some avian species, such as domestic ducks, may harbour the virus without displaying symptoms. Therefore, people need to be fully informed about preventive measures, including the use of protective equipment. The practice of slaughtering and eating of infected birds, whether diseased or already dead, must be stopped, FAO and WHO warn. These birds should also not be used for animal feed.Even in areas or countries where outbreaks are currently occurring, the likelihood of infected poultry entering an industrialized slaughtering and processing chain, and eventually being marketed and handled by a consumer or a restaurant worker, is considered to be very low, FAO/WHO said. Good hygienic practices during preparation and cooking poultry at temperatures of 70°C or above will further contribute to the safety of cooked poultry meat.Proper vaccination of domestic poultry is considered to be a useful tool as part of an overall integrated strategy for the control of HPAI. It must be implemented in accordance with existing standards and procedures for vaccination. With appropriate monitoring programs in place, vaccinated poultry can enter the food chain without particular risk for the consumer.
Do the Eggs pose any threat?
Highly infectious avian influenza virus can be found inside and on the surface of eggs laid by infected birds. Although sick birds will normally stop producing eggs, eggs laid in the early phase of the disease could contain viruses in the egg-white and yolk as well as on the surface of the shell. Proper cooking inactivates the virus present inside the eggs. Pasteurization used by industry for liquid egg products is also effective in inactivating the virus.Eggs from areas with outbreaks in poultry should not be consumed raw or partially cooked (i.e., with runny yolk), FAO/WHO advise. To date, there is no epidemiological evidence to suggest that people have been infected with avian influenza by consumption of eggs or egg products.
Good hygienic practices to reduce exposure to the virus in areas with outbreaks in poultry ;1.No birds from flocks with disease should enter the food chain.
2. Do not eat raw poultry parts, including raw blood, or raw eggs in or from areas with outbreaks in poultry.3. Separate raw meat from cooked or ready-to-eat foods to avoid contamination. Do not use the same chopping board or the same knife. Do not handle both raw and cooked foods without washing your hands in between and do not place cooked meat back on the same plate or surface it was on prior to cooking. Do not use raw or soft-boiled eggs in food preparations that will not be heat treated or cooked.
4. Keep clean and wash your hands. After handling frozen or thawed raw poultry or eggs, wash your hands thoroughly with soap. Wash and disinfect all surfaces and utensils that have been in contact with the raw meat.5. Cook thoroughly: Thorough cooking of poultry meat will inactivate the virus. Either ensure that the poultry meat reaches 70°Celsius at the centre of the product (“piping” hot) or that the meat is not pink in any part. Egg yolks should not be runny or liquid antibiotics could be life-saving in the case of late-onset pneumonia.
Is Bird Flu real threat to human life ot it is an overexpression from Mutton producing Nations- who after foot and mouth disease were facing economic recession
Dr Fiaz Maqbool Fazili- Surgeon in General
founderKRRC(Kashmir religous and research council and medina surgical club) a help lines for public
Posted by: fiazfazili Posts: 16 :: 03-03-2006 :: | Reply to this Message