Asif Iqbal, Fakhrul Islam, Omer Khan Orakzai.
Clinical presentation of vernal keratoconjunctivitis in district Swabi.
Al-Shifa J Ophthalmol Jun ;8(1):13-9.

Objective: To determine the various clinical manifestations of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in District Swabi. Subjects and Methods: This was a hospital based descriptive study, conducted at the Eye Department of District Head Quarter Hospital, Swabi from March 2010 to February 2012. Patients between age 5 to 25 years presenting with signs and symptoms of VKC belonging to different villages of district Swabi were clinically evaluated. Results: A total of 250 patients were examined. 179 patients (71.6%) were male and 71 patients (28.4%) were female. 154 patients (61.6%) came in the first decade of life. 153 patients(61.2%) had average monthly income between Rs. 2000- 5000. Regarding symptoms, 34% cases had combination of symptoms, 26.8% cases had itching and 10.4% cases had redness only. Seasonal variation was present in 88.4% cases, mostly occurred in spring in 48% cases for which prior treatment was received in 96.8% cases. 237 patients (94.8%) had no history of atopy and 246 patients (98.4%) had no family history of atopy. The commonest palpebral conjunctival sign was diffuse conjunctival hyperemia in 220 (88%) patients, giant papillae in 20 patients (8%) and cobblestones in 10 patients (4%). Limbitis was present in 148 patients(59.2%). Superficial punctate keratitis was most common corneal sign and was present in 89.2% patients. Conclusion: VKC is an allergic disorder commonly affecting male children usually after the age of 5 years with seasonal variation mainly in warm and dry climate. Disease is influenced by certain factors like age, gender, poverty, overcrowding, poor hygienic conditions, family history of atopy and previous treatment received. It has variable severity and sometimes it is a potentially blinding disease. There is a need to stage the disease severity in order to develop standardized therapeutic guidelines

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