Hazir T, Qazi SA, Abbas KA, Khan MA.
Therapeutic Re-appraisal of Multiple Drug Resistant Salmonella Typhi (MDRST) in Pakistani Children.
J Pak Med Assoc Jan ;52(3):123-7.

Background: The emergence of multi drug-resistant Salmonella typhi (MDRST) in many developing countries including Pakistan, has led to a search for suitable alternatives to conventional therapy. Quinolones have been found to be an effective alternative for the treatment of MDRST, in adults as well as in children. Methods: The efficacy of various therapeutic regimens currently used for the treatment of Typhoid was analysed.. Children 1 month to 12 years of age admitted to the Children`s Hospital from 1990 to 1993 with fever and Salmonella typhi isolated from blood cultures were included in this retrospective analysis. Results: The cumulative prevalence of Multiple Drug Resistant Salmonella typhi (MDRST) was 67.2%. Only 32.8% of isolated Salmonella typhi were susceptible to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The cumulative cure rate with conventional therapy (chloramphenicol or amoxicillin) was 47.4% and 53.6% children needed a change of therapy. The average hospital stay for the non-responders to conventional therapy was 9.2 days as compared to 7.7 days for the responders. The average hospital stay of the patients treated with a third generation cephalosporin was 12.7 days. Patients treated with ofloxacin, a flouroquinolone drug, did not need a change of therapy. The average hospital stay of the patients treated with flouroquinolones was 6.2 days. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of multiple drug resistant typhoid fever in hospitalized children, leading to a high failure rate with conventional therapy. This resulted in frequent change of therapy, delayed defervesence and prolonged hospital stay. The flouroquinolones were found to be the most effective drug against MDRST (JPMA 52:123, 2002).

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