Muhammad Asghar, Muhammad Rafiq Zafar, Faran Kiani, Arshad Mehmood.
Complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy single center experience of 103 cases.
Pak Armed Forces Med J Jan ;66(2):270-4.

Objective: To present our complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) during initial one year using modified Calvien system. Study Design: Observational prospective cohort. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Urology (AFIU), Rawalpindi from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2014. Material and Methods: The study was conducted at AFIU, Rawalpindi from 1st January 2014 to 31st August 2014. All of the consecutive 103 patients who underwent PCNL were included. Single-stage PCNL was performed in all the cases under general anesthesia. Pneumatic and ultrasound probes (alone or in combination) were used to fragment the calculi. Stone fragments were removed using graspers. A 16 Fr Foley catheter was used as nehrostomy tube. It was clamped on the first postoperative day. Foley catheter and ureteric stent was removed one day later. Intravenous antibiotics were given during admission period, i.e. 3-5 days. The complications were classified according to modified Clavien system. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 Results: Sixty nine (67%) patients were males and thirty four (33%) were females. Their ages ranged from 7 years to 81 years with mean age 41.7 +_ 16.34 years. PCNL was performed on right side in 48 (46.6%) cases while 55 (53.4%) underwent PCNL on left side. Overall complication rate was 21.35%. Grade 1 complications in 7.7%, grade 2 in 7.8%, grade 3a in 2.8% and grade 4a complications in 2.9% were seen. Conclusion: PCNL is associated with low incidence of major complications even in the hands of beginners when carefully performed.

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