Qamar-ul Islam, Mazhar Ishaq, Muhammad Amer Yaqoob, Muhammad Kashif Hanif.
Spectrum of combat ocular injuries in Pakistani troops.
Pak Armed Forces Med J Jan ;66(1):47-52.

Objective: To analyze the demography, characteristics, visual and anatomical outcomes of combat ocular injuries sustained by Pakistani troops. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO) Rawalpindi, from January 2010 to June 2014. Material and Methods: Data of 156 eyes of 120 war wounded patients treated at AFIO from 2010 - 2014 was retrieved and analysed. Record of each patient was evaluated and demographic data, mode and type of injury, initial and final visual acuity (VA), associated globe injuries, concomitant non-ocular injuries, type of surgical procedures and complications were endorsed on a pre-devised proforma. Injuries were classified according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT). Statistical analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 13.0. Results: Mean age of study population was 28.33 ± 7.70 years. Improvised explosive device (IED) blast was the most common mode injury occurring in 51 (42.5%) of casualties. Forty eight (30.76%) eyes sustained closed globe injuries while 108 (69.23%) eyes had open globe injuries. Thirty one (19.87%) eyes were initially managed conservatively, while primary corneo scleral repairs were done in 77 (49.35%) eyes. Overall, final visual outcome was significantly better in closed globe injuries as compared to open globe injuries with 26 (54.16%) eyes with closed globe injury achieving final VA of ≥ 6/12 as compared to 10 (9.25%) eyes with open globe injuries. Conclusion: Closed globe combat ocular injuries have better visual outcome as compared to open globe injuries.

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