Zia Ul Inam, Mian Abdur Rashid, Jaleel Kamran, M Masood Malik, Khalid Zaheer, Bashir Ahmad, Baber Rashid.
Lead poisoning through vehicular exhaust amongst Population of Rawalpindi Islamabad.
Pak Armed Forces Med J Jan ;50(1):42-5.

Vehicular exhaust is badly affecting the human health especially health of inhabitants residing close to the roads with high traffic density. The main toxicity is due to lead which is derived almost exclusively from alkyl lead compounds added to petrol. To assess the toxic blood lead levels, the present study was conducted on 149 subjects of three different areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Blood samples of all 3 groups were collected in 3 steps. These were analyzed by Flame method on Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. First group of 50 males living around Murree road Rawalpindi (Chandni Chowk to Marrir Chowk), presented with mean blood lead levels as 31.41 Egg/dl, while 2nd group of another 50 males working for about 12 hrs in Pirwadayi Bus Stand Rawalpindi has showed mean blood lead levels as 20.50 ug/d1.49 blood samples were collected, from 3rd group (presuming it to be a control group) living in Lakhwal area of Bunigala, Islamabad, having least exposure to vehicular exhaust. This group consisted of 41 females and only 8 males presenting with 14.35 mcg/dl and 16.32 mcg/dl of mean blood lead levels respectively. The 3 different areas can fairly be labeled as localities of 24 hrs exposure, 12 hrs and least exposure respectively. Study proves that higher blood lead levels are directly proportional to the traffic density of a particular area. This day light fact alarms the authorities concerned to take appropriate measures including legal, administrative and social steps.

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