Muhammad Arif Ali, Muhammad Moaaz Arif, Ayesha Arif, Tehreem Fatima.
Roads Traffic Accidents : an Epidemiological study of Road Traffic Accidents in Tertiary Care Hospital.
Annals Punjab Med Coll Jan ;10(3):157-61.

Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is growing public issue and fall among four top causes of mortality and morbidity. Many people (of all age groups), die daily during playing in streets or travelling on roads. Main causes of these accidents are lack of driving skills, distracted and prolonged driving, use of intoxicants, use of mobile phone during driving, defective roads, over loading and inadequate government administrative structure. These accidents are predictable and largely preventable through multi-disciplinary coherent strategies. Objective: To study epidemiological factors, compliance with traffic rules and pattern of accidental injuries. Methods: This study is descriptive cross sectional, carried out at DHQ Hospital Faisalabad. The data was obtained from patients of RTA arriving at Accident & Emergency Department (Trauma Center), from 1st January 2016 to 30th June2016. During this period 583 patients of RTA were reported to this center. The study variables were socio demographic, human, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis was done in percentages, linear / logarithmic trends and chi-square test to know strength of association between these variables. Results: Among total 583 RTA cases, male victims were 449 (77.02%) and female 134 (22.98%). Majority of cases 256(43.91%) were in age group of 15-29 years. Victims of RTA from rural areas were 194 (33.28%) while 389 (66.72%) were from urban / sub-urban areas. People from low economical strata were 198 (33.96%), moderate 310 (53.17%) and victims with illiteracy level were 135 (23.16%) and having education up to school were 304 (52.14%). Human factor, cell phone user were 29 (4.97%). Victims observing traffic rules were 93 (15.95%) while only 17 (30.19%) practiced PPM.  Human factor regarding casual attitudes was observed in 47 (8.06%) cases. Maximum accidents occurred during office/school & market opening / closing timings i.e. 08-00 to 12-00 hours, 180 (30.87%) with fatality 27 (04.63% of this time events & 24.12% of total fatality) and 12-00 to 16-00 hours 136 (23.33%) with 4.29% fatality of total events & 22.32% of total fatality). Fatality was maximum during evening, 35 (6.00%) of evening RTA’s & 31.25% of total fatality.  Environmental factors, worst weather was observed in 35 RTA’s (6.00%), narrow and repairable roads shared in 69 cases (11.84%) while in old repairable vehicles were 17 (2.92%). RTA in two wheeler vehicles/one wheeler were 271+59=330 (56.60%), in auto rickshaw (three wheeler) 106 (18.18%) and in pedestrian 85 (14.58%). Pattern of head injury was found in 72 RTA’s (12.35%) while limb injuries 76 (13.04%). Mortality occurred in 112 (19.21%) cases while mild to severe morbidity was observed in 471 (80.79%) cases. Conclusion: This study concluded that male youth shared major portion of RTA victims. Morbidity and mortality was high in riders of two wheelers and in persons having head injuries. All the contributory factors were largely preventable through multi-pronged approach.

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