Nisar Akber Khan, Babar Rafiq Khan, Sajjad Haider, Muhammad Ali Tirmizey.
Evaluation of Etiology and Management Options of Epistaxis in Allied Hospital Faisalabad.
Annals Punjab Med Coll Jan ;7(1):52-5.

Objective:  To determine the evaluation of etiology and management options of epistaxis in patients presenting to  ENT  ward  Allied  Hospital  Faisalabad. Study Design:  Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study:  Allied  Hospital  Faisalabad from  July  2012  to December  2012. Methodology: Sixty patients of both sexes between the ages of 15-80 undergone this study.  A detailed history is taken and complete ENT examination done in all cases.  Regular blood pressure monitoring is done in all patients.  All the patients were fully investigated.  Management included first aid measures (nose-pinching,  ice-sponging, cold-saline gargles), anterior nasal packing, posterior nasal packing, and chemical cautery using silver nitrate. Results: In this study, epistaxis was caused by hypertension in 27 cases (45%).  In 15 patients (25%), the cause was trauma.  Anatomic lesions caused epistaxis in 6 cases (10%).  Chronic liver disease and pregnancy complications result in epistaxis in 3  cases (5%)  each.  While in 6 cases (10%), no cause was found.  Patients were managed successfully with non-surgical methods  (first aid measures, anterior nasal packing, posterior nasal packing, chemical cautery).  Anterior nasal packing was done in 45 % of cases  (the most effective). Conclusion: From the study,  it  is concluded that the commonest cause of epistaxis in this region of Punjab is hypertension  (45% of cases) and the most effective treatment option for epistaxis is anterior nasal packing  (45% of cases). 

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