Ahmad Saeed, Inayat-ur Rehman Khalil, Zahid Hussain Khalil.
Pattern of Epiphyseal Union at Knee in the Children & Young Adults of Peshawar.
Annals Punjab Med Coll Jan ;2(2):130-4.

Objectives: Objectives of the study were to: Determine the age of epiphyseal union at distal end of femur & proximal end of tibia and fibula in the children & young adults of Peshawar. Compare the pattern of epiphyseal union at knee among males and females. Study Design: Non-interventional descriptive. Settings: Department of Forensic Medicine, Khyber Medical College Peshawar. Subjects and Methods: In the study 120 healthy, young volunteer students of both sexes and original residents of NWFP were included. Males were 15-19 years and females were 13-17 years of age. Age was certified by means of birth record, school certificates and interview with the parents. Radiographs of right knee were taken using conventional x-rays apparatus. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used. Radiological findings regarding epiphyseal union were classified as follow; Stage of non-union Stage of partial union Stage of complete Union Data was compiled and significance of results was evaluated through statistical analysis of the data using Chi-square and t-test. Results: In males average age of epiphyseal union of femur, tibia and fibula is 16.5, 17 and 17.5 years respectively. In comparison, in females epiphyseal union of femur and tibia takes place at the age of 14 years while that of fibula at the age of 15 years. Epiphyseal union is 2.5 to 3 years earlier in females as compared to males. Conclusion: Epiphyseal union occurs earlier in Pakistan than in European countries. Europeans norms and standards of skeletal growth used for age estimation are not valid for Pakistani children. Further studies on pattern of epiphyseal union must be conducted to develop local reference standard that may be used for age estimation.

PakMediNet -Pakistan's largest Database of Pakistani Medical Journals - http://www.pakmedinet.com