Noman Nazir Ahmed, Quratul Ain Zamir, Umar Ijaz, Muhammad Shahid, Shahid Iqbal.
Gender bias in uveitis: results from a study at Armed forces institute of Ophthalmology Rawalpindi.
Pak Armed Forces Med J Jan ;70(Suppl-1):S182-87.

Objective: Current study aimed at finding the differences in etiology of uveitis among male and female genders among patients presenting to the Uveitis Clinic of AFIO, Rawalpindi. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology Rawalpindi, from Nov 2017 to Oct 2018. Methodology: A total of 182 patients diagnosed to have uveitis were recruited through non-probability consecutive sampling. Patients with diabetic retinopathy, vitreous hemorrhage, post-surgical uveitis and tumor associated uveitis were excluded. Data including demographic and ocular history were noted. Investigations were carried out to ascertain the underlying cause. Results: A total of 182 patients were included in the study ranging from 8 to 69 years of age with a mean age of 42 ± 8.5 years. Seventy six (41.7%) were males while 106 (58.3%) were females. Causes included idiopathic in 118 (65%), infectious causes in 31 (17%) and non-infectious causes in 33 (18%). After gender stratification, it was found that in 48 (63.2%) males and 70 (66%) females no cause could be ascertained (idiopathic). Among the 33 infectious causes 20 were males whereas 13 were females. Among 31 patients with non-infectious causes 8 were males and 23 were females. These gender differences were statistically significant; p=0.017. Conclusion: Infectious causes were more common among males whereas non-infectious causes are more frequent among females.

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