Sana Javed, Seema Naz Soomro, Parveen Khalid, Naveed Ahmed Memon, Noorul Ane Mughal, Aqsa Ali Shah.
Histomorphometric Effects of Smokeless Tobacco on Submandibular Gland in Albino Rat.
Annals Punjab Med Coll Jan ;14(1):46-9.

Background: Use of the smokeless tobacco is a major public health problem. Oral mucosal hyper keratinization occurs due to smokeless form of tobacco. Objective: To determine the Submandibular Gland injuries induced by smokeless tobacco in Albino Rat. Study Design: Experimental study. Settings: Department of Oral biology, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro-Pakistan. Duration: From November 1, 2015 to April 30, 2016. Methodology: Aalbano healthy rats were used to observe smokeless tobacco effects on submandibular glands. After initial weight record, rats were placed in three groups (A, B, C); Group-A (control group), group-B and group-C were fed with tobacco; non-smokeless, smokeless 5%, and smokeless 10%, respectively. During experiment, weight gain was recorded weekly and sub-mandibular gland weight was measured at the end of the trial. T-test was applied to analyze the data. H & E stain and reticulin stain were used to observed structural integrity of submandibular gland. All the data was recorded in the self-made proforma. Results: Overall body weight and submandibular weight were decreased in B and C groups as compared to control group. In group A, seromucinous acini was seen in parenchymal tissue, cuboidal epithelium showed duct line and red blood cells distended vessels. Stromal changes, narrow duct lumen and reasonable damage in parenchymal tissue with atrophy were detected in group B. Stromal tissues increased and atrophy of acini were observed in H and E stain during histological study. Further, as compared to control groups, in group B and C under reticulin stain and stromal tissues were enlarged with pragmatic vascular collapse. Conclusion: This study revealed abnormal histological changes in submandibular gland of albino female rats by oral use of smokeless tobacco.

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