Sahrai Saeed, Alka M Kanaya, Louise Bennet, Peter M Nilsson.
Cardiovascular risk assessment in South and Middle-East Asians living in the Western countries.
Pak J Med Sci Jan ;36(7):1719-25.

Nearly a quarter of the world population lives in the South Asian region (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives). Due to rapid demographic and epidemiological transition in these countries, the burden of non-communicable diseases is growing, which is a serious public health concern. Particularly, the prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing. South Asians living in the West have also substantially higher risk of CVD and mortality compared with white Europeans and Americans. Further, as a result of global displacement over the past three decades, Middle-Eastern immigrants now represent the largest group of non-European immigrants in Northern Europe. This vulnerable population has been less studied. Hence, the aim of the present review was to address cardiovascular risk assessment in South Asians (primarily people from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh), and Middle-East Asians living in Western countries compared with whites (Caucasians) and present results from some major intervention studies. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed to identify major cardiovascular health studies of South Asian and Middle-Eastern populations living in the West, relevant for this review. Results indicated an increased risk of CVD. In conclusion, both South Asian and Middle-Eastern populations living in the West carry significantly higher risk of diabetes and CVD compared with native white Europeans. Lifestyle interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects in terms of reduction in the risk of diabetes by increasing insulin sensitivity, weight loss as well as better glycemic and lipid control.

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