Zafar-ul Islam, Shahab Adil, Kulsoom Kareem.
Oral hygiene in children, adolescent and adult orthodontic pateints with multi bracket fixed appliances.
Pak Oral Dental J Jan ;40(4):210-3.

To compare the plaque index among the children, adolescent and adult orthodontic patients receiving multi-bracket fixed appliance treatment. This cross sectional analytical study comprised of 90 subjects equally divided into three groups based on their age. Inclusion criteria was subjects with orthodontics multi bracket fixed appliance for at least three months. Exclusion criteria were restored teeth, mental disability and craniofacial syndromes. The plaque scores for subjects were recorded using Silness and Loe plaque index. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. One way ANOVA and Independent sample t test were applied for difference of plaque scores among various age groups and gender of subjects respectively. Kappa statistics were applied for inter examiner reliability. Level of significance was kept at <=0.05. The total sample comprised of 34 males and 54 females. There is insignificant difference of plaque scores between male and females (p value = 0.865). The comparison of plaque scores shows a significant difference among the various age groups (p value = .022). Post hoc Bonferroni test showed a statistically significant difference for plaque score between children and adults (p value = 0.035). The comparison of plaque scores between adults and adolescents showed a marginally significant difference (p value = 0.075). In conclusions, there was no difference for plaque accumulation among male and female orthodontic subject. The children have statistically significant increase in plaque levels as compared to adults during orthodontic treatment with multi bracket fixed appliances.

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