Saba Fatima, Amber Goraya, Abid Ali Qureshi, Hina Azhar.
Cranial Ultrasound: a Novel Approach of Neuroimaging in Preterm Infants Suffering from Perinatal Birth Injury.
J Bahria Uni Med Dental Coll Jan ;13(1):61-6.

Introduction: Preterm birth is a common cause of neonatal mortality with an additional burden of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. It is caused by different factors that can be either perinatal, natal or postnatal leading to white matter injury/intracranial hemorrhages. These lesions can be readily assessed by cranial ultrasound which provides cost-effective, radiation-free, bedside imaging. Conclusion: Cranial ultrasound is an innovative method to assess brain injury in preterm infants. Ultrasonographic evaluation of preterm brain is recommended as early as possible after birth with interval follow up. Three distinct patterns of brain injury can be seen in preterm infants: Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), Germinal Matrix-Intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) and cerebellar hemorrhages. Germinal matrix hemorrhage is found to be most common pattern with cystic PVL being next among three patterns of brain injury. Ultrasound is an operator-dependent technique with poor visualization of few abnormalities on two-dimensional images. The limitation of conventional ultrasonography opens up new aspects of 3 D scanning with better imaging outcomes

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