Zulfiqar Ali Laghari, Naseem Attar, Noman Sadiq, Farzana Gul Baloch.
Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults Less than 40 Years of Age.
J Bahria Uni Med Dental Coll Jun ;13(1):24-8.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in adults less than 40 years of age. Study Design and Setting: A Cross-sectional study was carried out from 2018 to 2019 at University of Sindh, Jamshoro. Methodology: After getting approval from ethical review board, 263 participants were included in the study using convenient sampling technique. Subjects over 40 years of age, with history of CVD, who was on medication, pregnant women, smokers, and drug addicts were excluded. A structured questionnaire was administered, and associated data was collected. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were made. Blood was drawn and analysed for total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, HDL, and blood sugar. The existence of modifiable risk variables is shown as percentages, and the difference between genders was evaluated using the chi-square test. Results: Out of total subject, 76% had at least one risk factor present. The risk of Obesity was 29% and 30% for men and women respectively. Central obesity was higher in females (61%) as compared to males (35). Risk factors including hypertension, total triglycerides, and less-than-desired high-density lipoprotein were more prevalent in males as compared to females (p-value .0001). Whereas risk factors including total cholesterol and inactive lifestyle were more in females as compared to males (p-value 0.012 & .0007respectively). Conclusion: Three risk factors (Obesity, Central obesity, and Total Cholesterol) were found to be higher in females, while 4 risk factors (Hypertension, Increased TG, raised LDL, and hyperglycemia) were higher in males.

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