Sharmeen Shahid, Sania Abdul Rauf, Shanza Dastgir, Farhana Ali, Rabia Saifullah, Uswa Fatima.
Association of asthenopia with refractive errors in madrassa students.
Khyber Med Uni Med J Jan ;15(2):101-5.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of presenting clinical features of asthenopia in madrassa students with different refractive errors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September-November 2022 at different Madrassas in Lahore, Pakistan. Study was performed on a sample of 108 patients, who had different refractive difficulties. Informed consent was taken from the patients aging ≥18 years and from parents/ guardians of patients aging <18 years. A self-designed questionnaire was used to gather the data of all patients. Patients with different refractive errors within the range of 8-25 years were taken into consideration. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 25. A statistically significant p-value of 0.05 was considered. RESULTS: Out of 108 patients, 38 (35.2%) were males and 70 (64.8%) were females. Majority (n=59; 54.6%) were >16 years of age. Common asthenopic symptoms included hazy vision (n=106; 98.1%), headache (n=93; 86.1%), discomfort (n=79; 73.1%), pain (n=76; 70.4%) and eye strain (n=72; 66.7%). Common refractive errors were myopia (n=59; 54.6%), hypermetropia (n=25; 23.2%) and astigmatism (n=24; 22.2%). Severity of refractive errors was mild in majority of cases of myopia (n=24/59; and hypermetropia (n= and moderate in astigmatism (n=16; 64%). Headache, eye strain and blurring of vision had significant association with myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism. CONCLUSION:  Myopia and hypermetropia are the most common refractive errors; hazy vision and headache are the common asthenopic symptoms. There is a strong association between asthenopic symptoms and refractive errors.

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