Safdar Javed Sial, Junaid Khan, Saleem Iqbal, Ali Akbar Farakh Khan.
Chemical analysis of Renal Calculi from D.G. Khan.
Professional Med J Jan ;2(2):89-93.

A total of 50 consecutive male patients with upper urinary tract stones were included in this study. Stones were collected either by surgery or spontaneous passage of stones in urine. Stones were crushed and the pulverized material was analyzed chemically. Five stones (10%) were pure calcium oxalate, while the rest of stones were of mixed variety. Calcium and oxalate were found in all the 50 (100%) stones. Urates were present in 30 (60%) cases and no pure uric acid stone was found. Phosphate was also present in 30 (60%) cases. Ammonium was present in 10 (20%) stones in a mixed form. Magnesium was present in only 5 (10%) stones. It is concluded that most of the stones (90%) were of the mixed variety and calcium oxalate, urates and phosphates were the predominant constituents.

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